Hormonal Contraception Fact Card
Hormonal Contraception is often times seen as a solution for sexually active women wishing to avoid pregnancy. This fact card explores the consequences of this form of contraception and makes the case for why it should be avoided.
Sources: 1. Effectiveness of family planning methods adapted from World Health Organization (WHO) Department of Reproductive Health and Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP). Knowledge for health project. Family planning: a global handbook for providers (2011 update). Baltimore, MD; Geneva, Switzerland: CCP and WHO; 2011; and Trussell J. Contraceptive failure in the United States. Contraception 2011; 83:397–404. | 2. van Hylckama Vlieg A, et al. Venous thrombotic risk of oral contraceptives, effects of oestrogen dose and progestogen type: results of the MEGA case-control study. BMJ 2009; 339 doi:10.136/bmj.b2921. | 3. “Oral Contraceptive Use and Bone Density in Adolescent and Young Adult Women.” PubMed Central (PMC), www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822656/ | 4. Roach, Rachel E.J., et al. “Combined Oral Contraceptives: the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Ischemic Stroke.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 27 Aug. 2015, www.cochranelibrary.com/cdsr/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD011054.pub2/abstract. | 5. Franceschi S, et al. Genital warts and cervical neoplasia: an epidemiological study. Br J Cancer 1983; 48:621-28. | 6. Kahlenborn C, et al. Oral contraceptive use as a risk factor for premenopausal breast cancer: A meta-analysis. 2006 Mayo Clinic Proc 2006; 81(10):1290-1302. | 7. IARC 2007 Monograph 91. Combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives and combined estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy. Available at: http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol91/mono91.pdf | 8. Dolle J, et al. Risk factors for triple negative breast cancer in women under the age of 45. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18(4):1157-65.| 9. Moreno V, et al. Effect of oral contraceptives on risk of cervical cancer in women with HPV infection. The IARC multicentric case control study. Lancet 2002; Mar 30; 359(9312):1085-92. | 10. Hellwig, K., Chen, L., Stancyzk, F. and Langer-Gould, A. (2016). Oral Contraceptives and Multiple Sclerosis/Clinically Isolated Syndrome Susceptibility, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4780760/. | 11. Soroush, Ali, et al. “The Role of Oral Contraceptive Pills on Increased Risk of Breast Cancer in Iranian Populations: A Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Cancer Prevention, Korean Society of Cancer Prevention, 30 Dec. 2016, www.jcpjournal.org/journal/view.html?volume=21&number=4&spage=294.